What are Primary Sources?
"Primary documents" are defined by the American Historical Association’s Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct as “all forms of evidence - not just written texts, but artifacts, images, statistics, oral recollections, the built and natural environment, and many other things - that have survived as records of former times.
By "secondary literature," we [the AHA] typically mean all subsequent interpretations of those former times based on the evidence contained in primary documents."
Voice of the Shuttle ( VoS is woven by Alan Liu and a development team in the U.California, Santa Barbara, English Department.) Web site for Humanities Research. This site serves as a meta guide to websites of use to the scholarly community in the arts, humanities and social sciences. "VoS emphasizes both primary and secondary (or theoretical) resources."(Kent State description)
Internet History Sourcebooks Project (Fordham) The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts presented cleanly (without advertising or excessive layout) for educational use.
Avalon Project (Yale) Documents in Law, History, and diplomacy. 4000bce to present
In the First Person In the First Person is a free, high quality, professionally published, in-depth index of close to 4,000 collections of personal narratives, letters, diaries, and oral histories in English from around the world.
United States History and World History
Evaluating Primary Source Web Sites
Evaluating Primary Source Web Sites (prepared by the Reference and Users Services Division of the American Library Association)
Before relying on the information provided by a website, examine and understand the purpose of the website. While the purpose might not affect the accuracy of the primary source material it contains, it might indicate that the material has been altered or manipulated in some way to change or influence its meaning. Sometimes sites use primary source material to persuade the reader to a particular point of view, distorting the contents in obvious or subtle ways. Also, sites can use primary source material haphazardly, without appropriately choosing, inspecting, or citing the work.
In general, look for websites with a non-biased, balanced approach to presenting sources. Websites produced by educational or governmental institution often are more reliable than personal websites, but government sites may be subject to propaganda.
Who is responsible for the website? Hints from URLs
Many URLs (Uniform Resource Locator or web site address) include the name and type of organization sponsoring the webpage. The 3-letter domain codes and 2-letter country codes provide hints on the type of organization. Common domain codes are:
|.edu = educational institution||http://docsouth.unc. edu|
|.gov = US government site||http://memory.loc. gov|
|.org = organization or association||http://www.theaha. org|
|.com = commercial site||http://www.historychannel. com|
|.museum = museum||http://nc.history. museum|
|.net = personal or other site||http://www.californiahistory. net|
Who is responsible for the website? Check for an Author
Look for the name of the author or organization responsible for the page. Look for the following information:
- Credentials - who is the author or organization and what sort of qualifications do they have?
- Contact address - is an email or some other contact information given?
- "About" link - is there an "about," "background," or "philosophy" link that provides author or organizational information?
Is there a clear purpose or reason for this site?
Websites can be created for a variety of purposes: to disseminate information, provide access to collections, support teaching, sell products, persuade, etc. Discovering the purpose can help determine the reliability of the site and the information it provides.
Some pages explicitly state their purpose, others do not. To find information about the purpose:
- Check for an "about" link - these links often provide some information about the purpose of the site.
- Find the homepage for the site - sometimes page includes the "about" link or other clues on the purpose of the organization sponsoring the site.
- Look for an agenda - are documents slanted in some way to persuade you? If the purpose of the website is to persuade, you should examine the material very closely before accepting it as fact.
Determining the origin of the document
In a website of primary sources it is important to determine where the author got the documents. The best sites clearly state the source of the original material. Different factors need to be considered based on the format of the document and type of site:
- Scanned image of a document
The image of scanned documents usually illustrates what the original documents look like. The origin of the documents at a website may be determined by the creator of the website. For example, the Library of Congress website generally supplies documents from its own manuscript collections, but providing in-house documents is not always possible.Sometimes, websites will present texts from other document collections, or may provide links to documents at other websites.
- Transcribed document
Transcribed documents do not illustrate the original image of the document but only provide the content in plain text format. It is important to discover the original source of transcribed documents to determine if the transcription is complete and accurate. The source, which may be the original documents or published editions, should be cited.
- Links to external documents
Metasites that link to external documents and web sites that use frames require you to track down the original website for the documents for evaluation purposes. A reliable website may link to a document in another not so reliable site and vice-versa.
What do others say about the web site?
Check to see if the web site is reviewed:
- Look up the web site in reputable history subject directories such as HistoryMatters and the HistoryGuide
- See if the site has been reviewed in the Internet Scout Project. Also check printed reviews.
Find out what other webpages link to the web site. How many links are there? What kinds of sites are they?
- Do a link search in Google.
Is the content clearly explained, organized, and accessible?
Good web design not only makes an electronic resource easier to use, it is also one indication that the content has been provided, and is being maintained, by a trustworthy source. Although standards of what constitutes "good web design" vary widely, clarity, simplicity and easily-understandable navigational cues are some of the obvious signs. Some considerations are:
- Pages that are legible with clear explanations.
- Obvious navigational aid that provide access to documents and obvious links on every webpage to the homepage.
- Individual urls for each document for ease of linking and citation information.
- Clear instructions about special software requirements.
What is the format of the documents?
An electronic version of a primary source can be either a scanned image of the original document (a facsimile) or an ASCII text or word processed version, created by re-keying the content of the document or by using optical character recognition (OCR) to convert the image of the document into text. Ideally, a primary source on the web should be made available in both forms when originals are difficult to read and to provide keyword searching of the text. Facsimiles reproduce the layout, illustrations and other non-verbal information contained in the original document, and they allow the researcher to check the accuracy of other editions or versions of the document. ASCII text versions can be searched, quoted from easily (by copying into word-processing software) and they provide a back-up for illegible portions of facsimiles.
Is there a fee for use?
Fee-based sites must be weighed against their value. It is possible that the same content, or similar content, is available through another electronic source free of charge. Public, school, and academic libraries may offer free access to fee based electronic collections of primary resources.